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Table 4 MoH activities permitted to PBE graduates and physicians only, and the respondents' perceived need for other necessary approval (%)

From: Examining professional boundaries between nurses and physicians in neonatal intensive care units

Activity NICU professionals (respondents) Responses (N (PBE) =235, N (physicians) = 46)
No need for approval Approval needed (from institution, director or physician) Not performed by nurse Unknown whether approval is needed
IV push medication PBE nursing graduates 14 62 20 4
Physicians 16 49 33 2
Upper/lower limbs or skull insertion of peripheral cannula PBE nursing graduates 22 61 15 2
Physicians 29 49 31 0
Arterial line blood draw PBE nursing graduates 19 58 19 4
  Physicians 30 45 21 2
Arterial line removal PBE nursing graduates 7 40 51 3
Physicians 11 30 59 0
Central lines and alternate systems push medication PBE nursing graduates 11 54 31 4
Physicians 18 39 43 0
Drawing blood for blood type and cross match PBE nursing graduates 3 35 60 2
Physicians 13 20 2 65