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Table 3 Mann Whitney’s U test results

From: Enhancing patient-doctor-computer communication in primary care: towards measurement construction

Item number Item Mann-Whitney U Exact sig. (2-tailed) Median (group 1) Std. (group 1) Median (group 2) Std. (group 2)
1. Arrange the room to allow both patient and physician to see the screen 222.000 .220 4.00 .850 3.00 1.433
2. Preview the EMR before entering or having the patient enter the room 248.000 .562 4.00 1.091 3.00 .597
3. Introduce yourself before turning to the computer 231.500 .167 5.00 1.088 3.00 .885
4. Introduce the computer and its role to the patient, while identifying the patient in the EMR 267.500 .865 3.00 1.047 3.00 .841
5. Begin the encounter with your patient’s concerns 252.000 .583 5.00 .632 4.00 1.017
6. Summarize and briefly touch-type the visit’s agenda 234.500 .359 4.00 .861 5.00 .229
7. Do not interrupt the patient while he is talking due to computer guided questions/prompts 211.500 .220 4.00 .774 3.00 .976
8. Establish reason for visit primarily based on the patient’s needs rather than computer prompts 264.500 .562 4.00 .702 5.00 .478
9. Describe the security and confidentiality of the patient’s electronic record information 265.000 .167 3.00 1.319 4.00 .882
10. Discuss antecedent treatments while browsing the computerized record 256.000 .865 3.00 .949 5.00 .697
11. Tell the patient what you are doing as you turn to the computer 267.000 .583 4.00 .778 4.00 .749
12. Reposition the screen so that it is closer to the patient 228.000 .359 3.00 .944 3.00 1.202
13. Point to relevant areas on the screen 263.500 .157 4.00 .907 4.00 .838
14. Signal shifts toward the computer, let the patient know that you are still attending to his or her needs 235.500 .809 4.00 .711 4.00 .667
15. Read back what you have written followed by looking at your patient 261.500 .832 4.00 .850 3.00 .946
16. Use transition statements to the computer, signpost, use real-time typing, read-back 235.000 .680 3.00 .783 4.00 .964
17. Encourage patient participation in building their charts 267.000 .864 3.00 1.145 4.00 .577
18. Demonstrate sufficient typing skills 238.500 .295 4.00 1.099 4.00 1.046
19. Verify patient literacy, primary language, and visual acuity to optimize computer use 249.500 .797 3.00 .967 4.00 .761
20. Print out or share: care plans, medication lists, office notes, information, follow up appointments 274.000 .341 4.00 1.168 3.00 .780
21. Discuss medical issues and prevention strategies while using computer resources 242.500 .768 3.00 1.121 4.00 .838
22. Initiate/acknowledge patient requests for on-line information (data, screen sharing) 243.500 .374 4.00 .891 3.00 1.374
23. Teach the patient about his own body and situation by providing feedback from tests, diagnosis, showing test results on the screen or print out 260.000 .853 4.00 1.093 4.00 1.108
24. Use verbal and non-verbal cues: eye gaze, affirmative head nodding while patient is talking 257.500 .422 5.00 .862 4.00 .885
25. While typing on the computer, use verbal skills that demonstrate active listening: continuers (uh-huh, go on, I see), echoing statements (back channeling), short requests (tell me more), and short summarizing statements 272.500 .576 4.00 .726 4.00 1.032
26. When the patient is talking or when information is provided to him, face the patient: head, eyes, and torso toward the patient, remove hands from the keyboard or mouse, push the monitor away, and give the patient her undivided attention 253.000 .980 4.00 .759 4.00 .705
27. Provide patient handouts (or Web site references) and information about community support services, medication side effects, and follow-up appointments 264.000 .484 4.00 1.048 5.00 .507