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Table 2 The Cause of Death Association Indicator (CDAI), 2009a

From: High Israeli mortality rates from diabetes and renal failure - Can international comparison of multiple causes of death reflect differences in choice of underlying cause?

  Multiple cause (MC)
  Ischemic heart disease Other heart disease Cerebrovascular disease
UC diabetes    
France 450b 172b 230b
Italy 296b 108b 211b
USA 387b 162b 262b
Czech Republic 157b 99 149b
Israel 223b 144b 228b
Israel : % with MC 39.8 32.7 24.4
UC Renal failure    
France 194b 183b 88
Italy 148b 118b 93
USA 140b 134b 86
Czech Republic 130 136b 63
Israel 143b 134b 96
Israel : % with MC 25.1 31.0 10.1
  1. Source of data: Italy [14], France [15], USA [16], Czech Republic [17]
  2. Formula for CDAI [3] \( \mathit{\mathsf{C}}\mathit{\mathsf{D}}\mathit{\mathsf{A}}{\mathit{\mathsf{I}}}_{\mathit{\mathsf{u}},\mathit{\mathsf{c}}}=\frac{{\displaystyle {\sum}_{\mathit{\mathsf{x}}}\frac{{}_{\mathit{\mathsf{u}}}\mathit{\mathsf{d}}_{\mathit{\mathsf{c}},\mathit{\mathsf{x}}}}{{}_{\mathit{\mathsf{u}}}\mathit{\mathsf{d}}_{\mathit{\mathsf{x}}}}.{\overline{\mathit{\mathsf{d}}}}_{\mathit{\mathsf{x}}}}}{{\displaystyle {\sum}_{\mathit{\mathsf{x}}}\frac{{\mathit{\mathsf{d}}}_{\mathit{\mathsf{c}},\mathit{\mathsf{x}}}}{{\mathit{\mathsf{d}}}_{\mathit{\mathsf{x}}}}.{\overline{\mathit{\mathsf{d}}}}_{\mathit{\mathsf{x}}}}}*\mathsf{100} \)
  3. \( {}_{\mathit{\mathsf{u}}}\mathit{\mathsf{d}}_{\mathit{\mathsf{c}},\mathit{\mathsf{x}}} \) = number of deaths observed at age x with underlying cause u and contributing cause c
  4. \( {}_{\mathit{\mathsf{u}}}\mathit{\mathsf{d}}_{\mathit{\mathsf{x}}} \) = number of deaths observed at age x with cause u as underlying cause
  5. d c,x  = total number of deaths observed at age x with cause c as contributing cause (regardless of the underlying cause)
  6. d x  = total number of deaths observed at age x (regardless of the underlying cause)
  7. \( \overline{{\mathit{\mathsf{d}}}_{\mathit{\mathsf{x}}}} \) = standard number of deaths at age x (number of deaths from the 2009 WHO life table for high income countries)
  8. aCzech Republic - 2011
  9. b Significantly above 100 with 95 % CI calculated as specified in [4]