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Table 4 Characteristics associated with smoking status in men and women: Multinomial logistic regression models. Data presented as odds ratio (95 % confidence limits); never smokers were the reference category

From: Social characteristics associated with disparities in smoking rates in Israel

  Men Women
  Past smoking Current smoking Past smoking Current smoking
Age group, yrs:
 20-24 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 25-34 2.15 (1.30- 3.54) 1.36 (0.99-1.87) 2.35 (1.27-4.37) 1.55 (1.06-2.27)
 35-44 2.19 (1.27, 3.78) 1.13 (0.78-1.63) 2.58 (1.34-4.96) 1.42 (0.92-2.18)
 45-54 4.32 (2.48-7.54) 1.61 (1.08-2.40) 2.16 (1.09-4.26) 1.53 (0.98-2.39)
 55-64 6.74 (3.82-11.88) 1.23 (0.80-1.92) 2.33 (1.16-4.69) 1.14 (0.69-1.86)
 65-74 7.44 (4.03-13.74) 0.82 (0.48-1.41) 3.16 (1.51-6.61) 0.70 (0.38-1.30)
 75+ 7.20 (3.75-13.84) 0.33 (0.17-0.65) 2.00 (0.88-4.55) 0.18 (0.08-0.42)
Population sub-group:
 Born in Israel 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 Immigrants before 1990 1.04 (0.79-1.37) 1.23 (0.92-1.65) 0.99 (0.72-1.37) 0.94 (0.68-1.30)
 Immigrants between 1990 and 1995 1.18 (0.85-1.64) 1.37 (1.01-1.87) 0.55 (0.37-0.81) 0.71 (0.51-0.97)
 Immigrants after 1995 1.66 (1.08-2.57) 1.23 (0.80, 1.88) 0.45 (0.26-0.78) 0.66 (0.43-1.01)
 Arabs 0.74 (0.54-1.00) 1.53 (1.22, 1.93) 0.21 (0.12-0.36) 0.33 (0.24-0.47)
Years of education:
 0-8 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 9-12 0.81 (0.54-1.22) 0.69 (0.47-1.01) 1.43 (0.80-2.53) 1.17 (0.71-1.91)
 13+ 0.68 (0.46-1.01) 0.34 (0.23-0.50) 1.28 (0.73-2.24) 0.63 (0.38-1.03)
Religiosity:
 Secular 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 Traditional 0.86 (0.68-1.09) 1.02 (0.83-1.25) 0.67 (0.51-0.89) 0.90 (0.72-1.14)
 Observant 0.72 (0.56-0.91) 0.60 (0.49-0.75) 0.37 (0.27-0.52) 0.39 (0.30-0.52)
 Very religious 0.91 (0.61-1.35) 0.36 (0.23, 0.55) 0.24 (0.13-0.45) 0.06 (0.03-0.16)
Marital status:
 Married 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 Unmarried 1.01 (0.72-1.40) 1.22 (0.94-1.58) 1.00 (0.67-1.48) 2.45 (1.83-3.28)
 Divorced 1.34 (0.85-2.01) 2.71 (1.79-4.11) 1.36 (0.93-2.00) 2.16 (1.56-2.99)
 Widowed 0.83 (0.46-1.50) 1.62 (0.79-3.33) 1.11 (0.71-1.73) 1.85 (1.16-2.96)
Employment status:
 Employed 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) n.s. n.s.
 Unemployed 1.19 (0.70-2.03) 1.75 (1.17-2.60)   
 Not included in the labor force 0.82 (0.62-1.08) 0.77 (0.59-1.00)   
Possession of assets:
 Neither car nor house 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 Car only 1.53 (1.02-2.29) 1.07 (0.77-1.47) 1.40 (0.89-2.19) 1.21 (0.83-1.76)
 House only 1.04 (0.73-1.48) 0.66 (0.49-0.89) 0.57 (0.38-0.85) 0.56 (0.40-0.79)
 A car and a house 1.10 (0.80-1.53) 0.59 (0.45-0.77) 0.65 (0.45-0.96) 0.69 (0.50-0.95)
 A house and two cars or more 1.02 (0.67-1.55) 0.67 (0.47-0.94) 0.79 (0.49-1.28) 0.94 (0.63-1.40)
 Two houses or more 1.24 (0.82-1.87) 0.75 (0.51-1.09) 0.89 (0.55-1.45) 0.61 (0.38-0.99)
Being successful in meeting living expenses:
 Unsuccessful 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 Not very successful 0.82 (0.55-1.22) 0.82 (0.58-1.15) 0.81 (0.50-1.30) 0.68 (0.47-0.97)
 Successful 0.76 (0.52-1.11) 0.56 (0.40, 0.78) 0.66 (0.41-1.05) 0.42 (0.2- 0.61)
 Highly successful 0.59 (0.39-0.90) 0.37 (0.25, 0.53) 0.56 (0.32-0.96) 0.68 (0.24-0.59)
Self-reported health status:
 Not good at all 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 Not so good 1.02 (0.63-1.64) 1.00 (0.60-1.68) 0.91 (0.52-1.57) 0.83 (0.48-1.45)
 Good 0.65 (0.39-1.07) 0.84 (0.49-1.43) 1.11 (0.65-1.90) 1.23 (0.73-2.10)
 Very good 1.26 (0.77-2.08) 1.16 (0.67-1.99) 0.77 (0.44-1.38) 0.82 (0.47-1.44)
Body mass index (kg/m2):
 Normal (<25.0) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 Overweight (≥25.0 and <30.0) 1.11 (0.90-1.37) 0.97 (0.80-1.17) 1.34 (1.03-1.74) 0.98 (0.77-1.25)
 Obese (≥30.0) 1.34 (1.02-1.75) 0.70 (0.53-0.92) 0.99 (0.70-1.38) 0.75 (0.55-1.01)
Self-reported leisure physical activity:*
 None 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 Less than recommended 1.05 (0.79-1.38) 0.62 (0.47-0.81) 0.93 (0.67-1.30) 0.64 (0.47-0.88)
 Meeting WHO recommendations 0.62 (0.47-0.81) 1.02 (0.80-1.30) 1.08 (0.80-1.45) 0.67 (0.51-0.88)
 Meeting recommendations for additional health benefit 0.92 (0.71-1.19) 0.64 (0.51-0.81) 1.21 (0.86-1.71) 0.86 (0.63-1.17)
Mean gross income per-capita per month: n.s. n.s.   
 <2,000 NIS    1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 2,000-4,000 NIS    1.21 (0.85-1.74) 1.43 (1.07-1.92)
 >4,000 NIS    1.58 (1.09-2.29) 1.40 (1.08-1.93)
 No information    1.62 (1.06-2.48) 1.17 (0.81-1.68)
  1. n.s. : Non significant association
  2. *According to the Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. WHO publication. 2010. ISBN: 9789241599979