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Table 5 Factors associated with younger age at smoking initiation among men and women*: Cox proportional hazard models

From: Social characteristics associated with disparities in smoking rates in Israel

  Men Women
  Hazard Ratio (95 % confidence interval) Hazard Ratio (95 % confidence interval)
Birth cohort:
 1930-1949 1.00 (reference category) 1.00 (reference category)
 1950-1959 1.09 (0.94-1.26) 1.02 (0.84-1.24)
 1960-1969 1.12 (0.96-1.31) 1.17 (0.95-1.45)
 1970-1979 1.13 (0.97-1.32) 1.53 (1.26-1.86)
 1980-1989 1.53 (1.31-1.79) 2.21 (1.82-2.68)
Years of education:   n.s.
 0-8 1.00 (reference category)  
 9-12 1.02 (0.86-1.21)  
 13+ 0.86 (0.72-1.01)  
Religiosity: n.s.  
 Secular   1.00 (reference category)
 Traditional   0.93 (0.80-1.07)
 Observant   0.83 (0.70-0.99)
 Very religious   1.40 (0.86-2.27)
Population sub-group:   n.s.
 Born in Israel 1.00 (reference category)  
 Immigrants before 1990 1.026 (0.888-1.185)  
 Immigrants between 1990 and 1995 1.360 (1.165-1.586)  
 Immigrants after 1995 1.178 (0.985-1.409)  
 Arabs 0.849 (0.749-0.962)  
  1. *Only Jewish women were included in the analysis (see methods section)
  2. n.s.: Non significant association