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Table 1 Baselinea characteristics of the study group by gender

From: Comprehensive healthcare resource use among newly diagnosed congestive heart failure

  Overall Females Males
CHF patients Non-CHF age & sex matched MHS members CHF patients Non-CHF age & sex matched MHS members CHF patients Non-CHF age & sex matched MHS members
N 6,592 32,960 2,816 14,080 3,776 18,880
Female 42.7% 42.7%     
Age, mean ± SD, y 72.6 ± 12.4* 72.6 ± 12.5* 75.9 ± 11.5 76.0 ± 11.5 70.1 ± 12.5* 70.1 ± 12.5*
Age ≥ 65 years, % 74.0% 74.0% 84.1% 84.1% 66.5% 66.5%
SES, mean ± SD 11.6 ± 4.2 12.4 ± 4.2 11.5 ± 4.2 12.3 ± 4.2 11.6 ± 4.3 12.5 ± 4.2
Ever smoked, % (n) 17.3% (1,138) 12.5% (4,112) 7.5%
(211)
6.8%
(953)
24.5% (927) 16.7% (3,159)
Hypertension 83.8% 64.5% 89.1% 71.9% 79.9% 59.0%
CKD 59.2% 30.2% 65.3% 35.1% 54.7% 26.7%
Diabetes mellitus 45.9% 23.8% 45.4% 23.3% 46.2% 24.1%
AF 37.0% 8.1% 45.3% 8.3% 34.0% 8.0%
Non-MI IHD 33.4% 12.5% 30.8% 8.9% 35.2% 15.3%
MI 36.9% 8.1% 23.4% 4.9% 47.0% 10.4%
Cancer 20.9% 18.5% 21.1% 17.1% 20.8% 19.5%
CVA 12.7% 5.2% 12.9% 5.2% 12.6% 5.1%
PVD 14.3% 4.2% 9.1% 2.8% 18.2% 5.3%
TIA 6.3% 2.4% 6.0% 2.3% 6.6% 2.4%
On dialysis 1.79% 0.34% 1.2% 0.2% 2.3% 0.5%
Health services utilization in year following diagnosis
Primary physicianb 19 (12, 29) 8 (4, 14) 19 (12, 29) 9 (5, 15) 19 (12, 29) 8 (4, 13)
Cardiology servicesb 11 (5, 22) 3 (1, 7) 8 (3, 18) 3 (1, 6) 13 (6, 25) 3 (1, 7)
All non-cardiology medical specialtiesb 29 (14, 57) 17 (7, 34) 29 (14, 57) 17 (7, 34) 29 (14, 57) 16 (7, 33)
Hospitalization days, Median (IQR) 5 (1, 16) 0 (0, 0) 6 (1, 17) 0 (0, 0) 5 (1, 15) 0 (0, 0)
% (n) with > =1 hospitalization 77.8% (5127) 20.5% (6766) 78.3% (2205) 21.2% (2981) 77.4% (2922) 20.0% (3785)
% (n) with > =1 ER visit 11.1% (730) 5.2% (1708) 11.8% (332) 5.4% (767) 10.5% (398) 5.0% (941)
  1. *All p < 0.001 between CHF patients and non-CHF controls, except for overall and male age: p = 0.555 and p = 1.00, respectively, and cancer in males: p = 0.066
  2. acomorbid conditions diagnosed before index or within one year from index among CHF and non-CHF subjects (N = 39,552)
  3. bMedian (IQR) visits in year following diagnosis