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Table 2 Ratio of mean cost of various healthcare services of CHF and non-CHF patients vs. the mean cost of non-CHF primary and secondary MHS physician visits by age group

From: Comprehensive healthcare resource use among newly diagnosed congestive heart failure

Type of costs  45–64 years 65–94 years
Ratio of mean costs of healthcare services of CHF and non-CHF vs. the mean cost of non-CHF physician visitsa Ratio of mean costs of healthcare services of CHF and non-CHF vs. the mean cost of non-CHF physician visitsa
Females
N = 2014
Males
N = 5946
Females
N = 11667
Males
N = 12492
CHF non-CHF CHF non-CHF CHF non-CHF CHF non-CHF
Primary & secondary MHS physicians 2.2 1.00
(reference)
2.5 1.00
(reference)
1.6 1.00
(reference)
1.7 1.00 (reference)
Laboratory tests 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.1
Other 1.3 0.7 1.6 1.0 1.1 0.8 1.1 1.0
Secondary clinics 6.8 1.8 6.0 1.8 4.2 2.4 4.4 2.5
Medications 5.7 1.1 8.0 1.2 4.8 1.4 4.6 1.4
Hospital-related costs 37.3 4.0 46.7 5.1 23.3 6.0 26.2 7.1
Total expenses 56.3 8.9 74.4 10.0 34.4 11.2 41.3 12.7
  1. aPatients within the upper 1 percentile of costs per category of services were excluded from the analysis; Ratio of costs of reference categories: Among non-CHF controls, the mean cost of physician visits of the 65–94 age group was 1.12 and 1.61 times that of the 45–64 age group among females and males, respectively. Within age groups, the mean cost of physician visits of female was 1.33 and 0.93 times that of males, in the 45–64 and 65–94 age groups, respectively