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Table 3 Relative risk for incurring costs among all patients and crude and adjusted ratio of costs (95% CI) among patients whom had incurred costs of CHF patients vs non-CHF controls, 2007–2012*

From: Comprehensive healthcare resource use among newly diagnosed congestive heart failure

  45–64 years (N = 8,040) (CHF N = 1,340; non-CHF N = 6,700)
Relative risk for incurring healthcare costs among all patients
(N = 8,040)
Females
(N = 2,034)
Males
(N = 6,006)
Type of cost RRa
of incurring costs
(95% CI)
N incurring costs Crude ratio
(95% CI)
Adjusted ratio
(95% CI)
N incurring costs Crude ratio (95% CI) Adjusted ratio
(95% CI)
N incurring costs Crude ratio (95% CI) Adjusted ratio
(95% CI)
Primary & secondary MHS physicians 1.10 (1.09–1.11) 7,236 2.08
(1.98–2.18)
1.66
(1.56–1.76)
1,909 2.11
(1.94–2.30)
1.80
(1.61–2.01)
5,400 2.23
(2.10–2.36)
1.72
(1.61–1.85)
Laboratory tests 1.27
(1.25–1.29)
6,292 1.76
(1.67–1.85)
1.43
(1.34–1.52)
1,691 1.84
(1.67–2.03)
1.42
(1.25–1.62)
4,568 1.57
(1.52–1.63)
1.33
(1.27–1.38)
Secondary clinics* 1.31
(1.29–1.33)
6,186 5.35
(4.96–5.76)
3.62
(3.32–3.94)
1,645 3.81
(3.32–4.37)
2.67
(2.27–3.13)
4,532 5.94
(5.42–6.50)
3.70
(3.34–4.09)
Medications 1.15
(1.14–1.17)
7,052 3.01
(2.80–3.24)
1.76
(1.62–1.90)
1,880 3.50
(3.04–4.04)
2.32
(1.95–2.76)
5,173 2.83
(2.60–3.08)
1.68
(1.53–1.85)
Hospital-related costs 1.78
(1.74–1.83)
4,872 5.05
(4.57–5.58)
2.86
(2.56–3.19)
1,481 6.35
(5.21–7.74)
3.52
(2.85–4.35)
3,392 4.71
(4.19–5.29)
2.61
(2.29–2.98)
Other medical expenses 1.38
(1.33–1.42)
3,110 1.54
(1.40–1.70)
1.40
(1.24–1.57)
892 1.69
(1.40–2.04)
1.51
(1.19–1.91)
2,236 1.50
(1.34–1.69)
1.36
(1.18–1.57)
Total 1.11
(1.10–1.11)
7,279 6.38
(5.87–6.93)
3.25
(2.96–3.56)
1,906 5.87
(5.02–6.86)
3.17
(2.68–3.75)
5,350 6.39
(5.8–7.05)
3.32
(2.98–3.70)
  65–94 years (N = 24,402) (CHF N = 4,067; non-CHF N = 20,335)
Relative risk for incurring healthcare costs among all patients
N = 24,402
Females
(N = 11,784)
Males
(12,618)
Type of cost RRa
of incurring costs
(95% CI)
N incurring costs Crude ratio (95% CI) Adjusted ratio
(95% CI)
N incurring costs Crude ratio (95% CI) Adjusted ratio
(95% CI)
N incurring costs Crude ratio (95% CI) Adjusted ratio
(95% CI)
Primary & secondary MHS physicians 1.07 (1.07–1.08) 22,171 1.50
(1.46–1.54)
1.32
(1.29–1.36)
10,701 1.46
(1.41–1.52)
1.32
(1.26–1.37)
11,693 1.63
(1.57–1.68)
1.40
(1.35–1.45)
Laboratory tests 1.12
(1.12–1.13)
21,430 1.61
(1.56–1.65)
1.34
(1.30–1.38)
10,370 1.66
(1.57–1.77)
1.40
(1.30–1.51)
11,117 1.65
(1.59–1.72)
1.37
(1.32–1.43)
Secondary clinics* 1.14
(1.13–1.15)
21,144 3.07
(2.95–3.19)
2.26
(2.16–2.35)
10,102 3.06
(2.90–3.24)
2.23
(2.10–2.37)
10,988 3.07
(2.91–3.25)
2.10
(1.98–2.23)
Medications 1.07
(1.07–1.08)
22,771 1.64
(1.58–1.69)
1.32
(1.27–1.37)
11,047 1.63
(1.56–1.7)
1.34
(1.27–1.41)
11,725 1.62
(1.54–1.70)
1.26
(1.19–1.33)
Hospital-related costs 1.41
(1.40–1.43)
17,568 2.63
(2.49–2.78)
1.94
(1.83–2.05)
8,507 2.72
(2.51–2.94)
1.99
(1.83–2.17)
9,062 2.58
(2.39–2.78)
1.91
(1.76–2.07)
Other medical expenses 1.16
(1.14–1.18)
12,826 1.24
(1.17–1.30)
1.19
(1.12–1.26)
6,299 1.29
(1.19–1.39)
1.24
(1.14–1.36)
6,593 1.16
(1.07–1.25)
1.11
(1.02–1.21)
Total 1.07
(1.06–1.07)
22,810 2.99
(2.87–3.11)
2.08
(1.99–2.17)
11,039 2.89
(2.72–3.06)
1.95
(1.84–2.08)
11,719 2.93
(2.76–3.11)
2.06
(1.94–2.19)
  1. *ALL p-values are <0.001
  2. aRR: relative likelihood that a subject with CHF, compared to a subject without CHF would incur any type of healthcare cost
  3. Note: 1) The upper 1 percentile of costs within each age and sex group and service type were excluded;
  4. 2) A total of 185 patients were on dialysis at index or initiated dialysis in the first year post index. These patients were excluded from analysis of secondary clinics costs (61 and 124 had incurred costs in the upper 1 percentile and lower 99%, respectively), and from total costs analysis (94 and 91 had incurred costs in the upper 1 percentile and lower 99%, respectively);
  5. 3) All models adjusted for sex, age, SES, AF, MI, non-MI IHD, CVA, TIA, PVD, Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and CKD (with and without dialysis)