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Table 3 The Relationship between the likelihood of frailty and different variables – a univariate analysis

From: Estimated frailty prevalence among Israeli elderly – results from a cross sectional national survey

  Variable Total population (n = 1619)1 Robust (n = 609; 37.6%) Pre-frail (n = 930; 57.4%) Frail (n = 80; 4.9%) P among groups†
Gender Females (%) 52.9 36.0 62.4 71.3 < 0.0001
Age Age (mean ± SD) 74.60 ± 6.12 73.86 ± 5.64 74.92 ± 6.34 76.53 ± 6.43 < 0.0001
Marital status Married/with partner (%) 64.6 74.2 59.4 53.8 < 0.0001
Widowed (%) 27.7 19.4 32.3 36.3
Single (%) 2.5 1.3 3.4 1.3
Divorced (%) 4.4 4.4 4.0 8.8
Separated (%) 0.7 0.5 0.9 0.0
Religion ethnicity Jewish (%) 84.3 89.1 80.6 90.0 < 0.0001
Arab Muslim (%) 8.1 4.0 11.2 3.8
Arab Christian (%) 5.7 4.0 6.9 5.0
Christian (not Arab) (%) 1.7 2.8 1.1 1.3
Druze (%) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0
Smoking Current smoker (%) 11.0 9.6 12.0 10.0 0.026
Past smoker (%) 34.9 39.9 31.8 33.8
Non-smoker (%) 54.1 50.6 56.2 56.3
Employed/volunteered in the last 3 monthsa % Do not work/volunteer 76.5 67.1 81.1 95.0 < 0.0001
Education Education years (n = 1612) 10.80 ± 5.17 12.34 ± 4.70 9.91 ± 5.20 9.35 ± 5.52 < 0.0001
Incomeb ≤1744 NIS (%) 3.6 0.7 5.1 8.8 < 0.0001
1744+ NIS (%) 96.4 99.3 94.9 91.3
Physical function Katz ADL score (mean ± SD) 5.61 ± 1.51 5.18 ± .83 5.75 ± 1.65 7.25 ± 2.20 < 0.0001
No functional limitations (Katz score < 6) (%) 81.04 93.27 76.88 36.25 < 0.0001
Some functional limitations (score 6–10) (%) 16.68 6.24 20.22 55.00
Several functional limitations (score 11–15) (%) 2.22 0.33 2.90 8.75
Mood (n = 1262) GHQ score 6.45 ± 2.91 5.82 ± 2.98 6.75 ± 2.79 7.94 ± 2.60 < 0.0001
Negligible disturbance (score 0–3) (%) 18.5 24.2 15.4 9.1 < 0.0001
Moderate disturbance (score 4–8) (%) 61.8 63.5 62.3 43.9
Severe disturbance (score 9–12) (%) 19.7 12.3 22.3 47.0
Cognitive function Age-adjusted MMSE score 30.84 ± 3.48 30.87 ± 2.68 30.86 ± 3.84 30.24 ± 4.37 0.766
Cognitive impairment (MMSE< 24)c 3.6 1.3 4.5 10.0 < 0.0001
Clinical and metabolic BMI (mean ± SD; kg/m2) 29.18 ± 4.81 (n = 1514) 29.26 ± 4.08 (n = 595) 29.24 ± 5.17 (n = 857) 27.47 ± 5.72 (n = 62) < 0.0001*
Osteoporosis presence (%) 25.6 13.3 31.4 52.5 < 0.0001
Physician diagnosed hypertension (%) 57.8 57.0 57.2 71.3 0.044
Physician diagnosed diabetes (%) 28.2 21.2 30.1 58.8 < 0.0001
  1. † = χ2 test for categorical variables and analysis of variance for continuous variables – among frailty categories (robust, pre-frail, frail)
  2.  = P for trend across groups for continuous variables (p < 0.01) using Jonckheere non-parametric trend test
  3. 1- The original data set included 1852 subjects of whom 217 did not have sufficient data to assess frailty. Another 16 subjects had higher risk for cognitive dysfunction (MMSE< 17) which may have resulted in report bias. Therefore, they were also excluded
  4. aComparison of subjects who do not work to those who work
  5. bIncome lower than 1744 NIS/person/month was defined as the poverty line
  6. cCognitive impairment is considered as any MMSE score below 24 (but ≥17) and was compared to MMSE score ≥ 24
  7. Abbreviations: ADL Activities of daily living, BMI Body mass index, GHQ general health questionnaire, MMSE Mini mental state examination, SD Standard deviation