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Table 1 Data about Restrained and Secluded Inpatients from the Literature

From: Clinical and demographic characteristics of secluded and mechanically restrained mentally ill patients: a retrospective study

Author (Ref.*) Country Number of patients Study design % restr.* % secl.* Duration of restr.* (h*) Duration secl.* (h*) Duration hosp.* (d*) N previous hosp.*
Allen & Currier [36] USA No data 1 year study 71(abs* No.) 308 (abs* No.) 3.2 3.6 No data No data
Betemps et al. [37] USA 86 medical centers 1-year study No data Mean 25.6 M = 16.2 No data No data
Chien et al. [19] Hong Kong 30 qualitative exploratory study Range 2–20 mean 8 No data No data
Dumais et al. [20] Canada 2721 2-year retrospective 17.5 23.2 Mean 22.4 (SD = 66.6) Mean 134.3 (SD = 682.4) Mean 118.1 (SD = 201.0) No data
Kaltiala-Heino et al. [8] Finland 1543 6-months retrospective study 3.8 6.6 No data No data No data No data
Kaltiala-Heino et al. [5] Finland 1543 retrospective chart review 7.2 23.9 Mean 19.4 (SD = 21.9) Mean 35.8 (SD =76.8) No data No data
Keski-Valkama et al. [38] Finland 1990–6417 1991–6103 1994–5785 1998–5170 2004–4859 Comparative structured postal survey from the national register 1.2 0.7 1.5 0.8 0.8 1.5 1.8 1.2 1.1 1.3 M = 6.7 M = 5.4 M = 6.7 M = 7.3 M = 7.0 M = 5.6 M = 9.0 M = 11.2 M = 12.1 M = 17.1 No data No data
Korkeila et al. [27] Finland 1543 6-months retrospective chart review 3.8 6.6 Cumulative 86 Cumulative 574 No data No data
Kostecka & Zardecka [39] Poland 414 Comparative study 15.7 Mean 7.95 (SD = 4) No data No data
LeGris et al. [9] Canada 85 8-months 48.2 8.7 days Mean 41 (SD = 31) Mean 4.2 (SD = 6)
Martin et al. [40] Germany 31,399 1-year study in 7 German and 49.9 50.1 Mean 9.6 (M = 9.3) Mean 7.4 (M = 9.0) No data No data
Switzerland 7931 7 Swiss psych hospitalization 20.7 79.3 Mean 48.7 (M = 52.8) Mean 55.0 (M = 55.1)
Odawara et al. [41] Japan 1334 4- years retrospect study 18 Within 24 h or less 16.2% Within 2–3 days 24% Within 4–7 days 21.6% Within 8–14 days 14.1% Within 15–30 days 17.9% > 31 days 6.2% Mean 51.4 (SD = 48.2) 2.2
Porat et al. [42] Israel 1419 A month study in 9 government psychiatric hospitalization 14.2 5.4 No data 0–26 1–3- 23 4–9 – 21 10+ − 19
Thomas et al. [12] UK 193 2-years admission cohort 44 No data No data Mean 3.08 (SD = 5.03)
Tunde-Ayinmode & Little [11] Australia 253 1-year retrospective study 31 Mean 9 (SD = 10) Mean 29 (SD = 22) 71% had prev. Hosp.
  1. Abs – absolute number, hosp – hospitalization Ref – references, restr – restraint, secl – seclusion, M – median;
  2. SD – standard deviation, h – hours, d - days