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Table 3 Analysis of Variance Quality of Life (QUALIDEM)

From: More staff = better quality of life for people with dementia? results of a secondary data analysis in German shared-housing arrangements

Dependent Variable p-Value Model R2 Independent (Co-)Variable p-Value Variable Estimate 95% CI
QUALIDEM: total Score <  0.001 0.216 Intercept <  0.001 37.99 24.65:51.34
Sex: femalea 0.253 1.84 − 1.32;5.01
At least 1 challenging behaviour (CMAI) b <  0.001 −10.40 − 13.22;- 7.58
Cognitive decline (GDS) c    
≤ 5 0.008 6.75 1.77;11.73
6 0.195 2.29 −1.18;5.76
Level of care dependencyd    
0 0.111 6.06 −1.40;13.52
I 0.054 5.17 −0.09;10.43
II 0.737 −0.68 −4.63;3.28
Age* 0.001 0.27 0.12;0.42
Length of ataye,* 0.230 0.39 −0.245;1.02
Ratio total-staff per resident* 0.804 0.25 −1.75;2.25
QUALIDEM: care relationship <  0.001 0.163 Intercept <  0.001 46.96 26.08;67.85
Sex: female a 0.043 5.11 0.154;10.07
At least 1 challenging behaviour (CMAI) b <  0.001 −14.51 − 18.93;-10.10
Cognitive decline (GDS)c    
≤ 5 0.188 5.23 −2.57;13.02
6 0.140 4.08 −1.35;9.51
Level of care dependencyd    
0 0.296 −6.21 −17.88;5.47
I 0.239 −4.93 −13.17;3.30
II 0.017 −7.57 −13.76;-1.39
Age* 0.032 0.26 0.02;0.50
Length of staye,* 0.281 −0.54 −1.53;0.47
Ratio total-staff per resident * 0.442 −1.23 −4.36;1.91
QUALIDEM: positive affect 0.133 0.045 Intercept 0.001 40.61 16.08;65.13
Sex: femalea 0.140 4.38 − 1.44;10.20
at least 1 challenging behaviour (CMAI)b 0.123 −4.08 −9.26;1.11
Cognitive decline (GDS)c    
≤ 5 0.147 6.76 −2.40;18.39
6 0.070 5.89 −0.49;12.27
Level of care dependencyd    
0 0.502 4.68 −9.03;18.39
I 0.688 1.98 −7.69;11.65
II 0.630 −1.78 −9.04;5.48
Age* 0.053 0.27 −0.01;0.55
Length of staye,* 0.680 0.24 −0.92;1.40
Ratio total-staff per resident * 0.305 1.92 −1.76;5.59
QUALIDEM: negative affect <  0.001 0.149 Intercept <  0.001 57.00 33.32;80.69
Sex: female a 0.006 −7.95 −13.57;-2.33
At least 1 challenging behaviour (CMAI) b <  0.001 −12.25 −17.26;-7.24
Cognitive decline (GDS)c    
≤ 5 0.211 5.63 −3.21;14.47
6 0.169 −4.31 −10.47;1.85
Level of care dependencyd    
0 0.222 8.23 −5.01;21.47
I 0.077 8.43 −0.91;17.76
II 0.403 2.99 −4.03;10.00
Age* 0.360 0.125 −0.14;0.39
Length of staye,* 0.112 0.91 −0.21;2.03
Ratio total-staff per resident * 0.937 −0.143 −3.69;3.41
QUALIDEM: restless tense behavior <  0.001 0.186 Intercept 0.899 1.85 −26.86;30.56
Sex: femalea 0.592 −1.86 −8.67;4.96
At least 1 challenging behaviour (CMAI) b <  0.001 −13.99 − 20.06;-7.92
Cognitive decline (GDS) c    
≤ 5 0.009 14.24 3.53;24.96
6 0.001 13.30 5.84;20.77
Level of care dependencyd    
0 0.111 13.03 −3.02;29.08
I 0.013 14.39 − 3.07;25.71
II 0.094 7.26 −1.25;15.76
Age* 0.001 0.54 0.21;0.86
Length of staye,* 0.259 0.78 −0.58;2.14
Ratio total-staff per resident * 0.182 −2.93 −7.23;1.37
QUALIDEM: positive self-image 0.001 0.145 Intercept 0.014 47.02 9.63;84.41
Sex: femalea 0.106 −5.56 −13.19;-1.28
At least 1 challenging behaviour (CMAI) b 0.005 −9.42 −2.82;-16.02;
Cognitive decline (GDS) c    
≤ 5 0.030 8.79 0.86;16.72
Level of care dependencyd    
0 0.349 9.62 −10.61;29.86
I 0.845 −1.75 − 19.30;15.81
II 0.549 −5.00 −21.41;11.42
Age* 0.057 0.36 −0.01;0.73
Length of staye,* 0.454 −0.60 −2.17;0.98
Ratio total-staff per resident * 0.391 2.21 −2.85;7.27
QUALIDEM: social relationship <  0.001 0.176 Intercept <  0.001 42.58 20.75;64.40
Sex: femalea 0.298 2.74 −2.44;7.92
At least 1 challenging behaviour (CMAI) b <  0.001 −16.38 −21.00;11.77
Cognitive decline (GDS)c    
≤ 5 0.084 7.17 −0.98;15.31
6 0.182 −3.86 −1.82;19.53
Level of cared    
0 0.219 7.63 −4.57;19.84
I 0.297 4.57 −4.04;13.17
II 0.565 −1.89 −8.36;4.57
Age* 0.158 0.178 − 0.07;0.43
Length of staye,* 0.456 0.39 −0.64;1.42
Ratio total-staff per resident * 0.688 −0.668 −3.94;2.60
QUALIDEM: social isolation 0.148 0.176 Intercept <  0.001 42.58 20.75;64.40
Sex: femalea 0.298 2.74 −2.44;7.92
at least 1 challenging behaviour (CMAI) b <  0.001 −16.38 −11.77;-0.80
Cognitive decline (GDS) c    
≤ 5 0.084 7.165 −0.98;15.31
6 0.182 3.86 −1.82;9.53
Level of care dependencyd    
0 0.219 7.63 −4.57;19.84
I 0.297 4.57 −4.04;13.17
II 0.565 −1.89 −8.36;4.57
Age* 0.158 0.178 −0.07;0.43
Length of staye,* 0.456 0.39 −0.64;1.42
Ratio total-staff per resident * 0.688 −0.668 −3.94;2.60
QUALIDEM: feeling at home 0.148 0.070 Intercept <  0.001 69.33 38.27;100.39
Sex: femalea 0.662 −1.33 −7.34;4.68
at least 1 challenging behaviour (CMAI) b 0.025 −6.28 −11.77;0.80
Cognitive decline (GDS) f    
≤ 5 0.276 −3.65 −10.23;2.94
Level of care dependencyd    
0 0.970 0.32 −16.49;17.13
I 0.478 −5.26 −19.84;9.33
II 0.802 −1.73 − 15.37;11.90
Age* 0.407 0.129 −0.18;0.44
Length of staye,* 0.176 0.90 −0.41;2.21
Ratio total-staff per resident * 1.00 −0.01 −4.20;4.20
QUALIDEM: having something to do <  0.001 0.157 Intercept 0.041 43.81 1.87;85.76
Sex: femalea 0.483 2.89 −5.23;11.00
at least 1 challenging behaviour (CMAI)b 0.088 −6.44 −13.84;0.97
Cognitive decline (GDS) f    
≤ 5 0.004 13.01 4.11;21.90
Level of caredependencyd    
0 0.512 7.56 −15.14;30.26
I 0.328 9.80 −9.90;29.49
II 0.709 −3.49 −21.90;14.93
Age* 0.987 0.210 −0.42;0.41
Length of staye,* 0.439 −0.69 −2.46;1.07
Ratio total-staff per Resident * 0.152 4.14 −1.54;9.82
  1. acompared to male; bcompared to no challenging behaviour; ccompared to GDS 7; dcompared to care dependency level III ein the shared-housing arrangement; fcompared to GDS 6; CMAI Cohen-Mansfield-Agitation Inventory, GDS Global Deterioration Scale, RN Registered nurse, CNA Certified nursing assistant; *Co-Variables