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Table 1 Main studies estimating the economic burden of SES-related health inequality

From: The economic burden of health disparities related to socioeconomic status in Israel

Country (Year of estimation) Socioeconomic index Counterfactual scenario (more equal outcome) Components of inequality-related economic burden: cost per year Total
Mortality and disabilities Lost days of work Excess medical care
[7] UK (2010) Income The health level is made equal to that in neighborhoods with above the median income Loss of 1.3 years of life per person: £2.2 billion loss of 2.5–3.8 disability-free years per person. £31 billion £5.5 billion 2.2% of GDP
[8] EU—25 countries (2004) Education The health level is made equal to that of the population half with higher schooling Those dying lose 16 years of life on average: €700 billion. Lost years of life in good health: €280 billion €141 billion €177 billion (20% of total healthcare expenditure, 1.7% of GDP) 13% of GDP
[9] U.S. (2003–2006) Race / ethnic origin The health level is made equal to that of the healthiest ethnic group Lost years of life: $239 billion $13 billion $57 billion 2% of GDP