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Table 4 Health beliefs model (HBM) categories and other variables*

From: Factors affecting oral examinations and dental treatments among older adults in Israel

  Category Cronbach Alpha Questionnaire items
1 Perceived importance of dental health 0.651 • Dental health is very important
• Routine dental examinations are very important
• Treating dental issues is as important as treating other health issues
• Routine dental examinations prevent dental and gums issues
• Routine dental hygienist treatments prevent dental and gums issues
2 Perceived benefits of dental examinations 0.676 • Routine dental examinations will prevent dental and gums issues
• It is important to take care of your teeth in order to save money that can later be used for treating severe dental issues
• Dental treatments and examinations help maintain teeth for a long time
3 Perceived barriers to dental examinations   • Dental treatments and examinations are time consuming procedures
• Dental treatments costs a lot of money
• Dental treatments are too risky
4 Perceived susceptibility 0.810 • There is a high probability that in the future you will have dental and gum issues
• In your opinion, during the coming year you will suffer from dental or gum issues
5 Perceived seriousness   • Dental and gum diseases may cause teeth loss
6 Dentist availability   • When I have dental issue, dentists are available
7 Trust in dentist   • How much trust do you have in your dentist?
8 Fear of dental examinations 0.903 • Concerned
• Afraid
• Terrified
• Nervous
9 Health motivation 0.670 • You get periodic examination every year, in addition to visiting the doctor when you are ill
• You usually act according to medical recommendations because you believe they will improve your health
  1. *Scale levels ranging from (1) “do not agree at all” to (5) “very much agree”