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Table 1 Utilization of gastroscopy (two tests or more) according to patient and physician’s characteristics

From: Correlates of gastroenterology health-services utilization among patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a large database analysis

Variable ≥2 gastroscopies
N = 11,261
0–1 gastroscopies
N = 63,958
P value
Sex, female 6570 (58.3) 36,363 (56.9) 0.003
Age, years   Df = 5 trend < 0.001
 19–34 713 (6.3) 10,081 (15.8) < 0.001
 35–44 1250 (11.1) 11,541 (18.0)  
 45–54 2384 (21.2) 12,850 (20.1)  
 55–64 3231 (28.7) 13,744 (21.5)  
 65–74 2534 (22.5) 10,038 (15.7)  
 75+ 1149 (10.2) 5704 (8.9)  
Country of birth   Df = 4 < 0.001
 Israel 5701 (50.6) 40,163 (62.8)  
 Former Soviet Union 3782 (33.6) 13,893 (21.7)  
 Asia/North Africa 614 (5.5) 3325 (5.2)  
 Europe/Americas 806 (7.2) 4701 (7.4)  
 Other/ unknown 358 (3.2) 1876 (2.9)  
Residential district   Df = 5 < 0.001
 Center 3000 (26.7) 20,866 (32.7)  
 Jerusalem 735 (6.5) 2561 (4.0)  
 North 1051 (9.4) 4827 (7.6)  
 Haifa 1209 (10.8) 5582 (8.8)  
 Tel Aviv 2152 (19.2) 20,344 (31.9)  
 South 2798 (24.9) 8183 (12.8)  
SES of place of residence    < 0.001
 Middle/High (5–10) 8671 (80.8) 51,196 (84.3)  
 Low (1–4) 2067 (19.2) 9552 (15.7)  
Background diseases
 Heart disease 2391 (21.2) 9665 (15.1) < 0.001
 Hypertension 5313 (47.2) 21,935 (34.3) < 0.001
 Diabetes 2151 (19.1) 8144 (12.7) < 0.001
Number of PPIs purchases    < 0.001
 Low (0–8) 3459 (30.7) 35,575 (55.6)  
 High (9+) 7802 (69.3) 28,383 (44.4)  
Primary care physician board certification   Df = 3 < 0.001
 Family medicine 2961 (26.3) 18,377 (28.7)  
 None 4562 (40.5) 23,652 (37.0)  
 Internal medicine 2702 (24.0) 15,382 (24.1)  
 Other 1034 (9.2) 6543 (10.2)  
Board certification of the clinic physician-manager   Df = 4 < 0.001
 Family medicine 1700 (15.1) 10,130 (15.9)  
 None 1400 (12.5) 4725 (7.4)  
 Internal medicine 1189 (10.6) 7452 (11.7)  
 Medical director 4440 (39.6) 26,189 (41.1)  
 Other 2493 (22.2) 15,250 (23.9)  
Primary care physician seniority    0.001
 Low (0–8 years) 5830 (51.8) 31,984 (50.0)  
 High (9–43 years) 5429 (48.2) 31,970 (50.0)  
  1. Data presented are numbers and percentages in parenthesis
  2. Df degrees of freedom, PPIs proton pump inhibitors, SES socioeconomic status
  3. Missing data: Residential district (205 patients); SES (3733 patients)