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Table 1 Having any out-of-pocket expenditures on dental care by demographic and socioeconomic household characteristics

From: Factors associated with disparities in out-of-pocket expenditure on dental care: results from two cross-sectional national surveys

CharacteristicsSurvey year
20142018
OverallAny dental OOPEPOverallAny dental OOPEP
N(%)No (%)Yes (%)N(%)No (%)Yes (%)
 8283(100)5925 (72.0)2358 (28.0) 8792(100)6091 (69.6)2701 (30.4) 
Sex,    < 0.001    0.017
 Male5232(64.9)63.568.55465(64.8)63.966.9
 Female3051(35.1)36.531.53327(35.2)36.133.1
Any household members aged 0–14,    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Yes3480(41.0)38.547.63547(40.8)37.448.5
 No4803(59.0)61.552.45245(59.2)62.651.5
Any household members aged 65+,    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Yes2210(25.9)27.721.22628(27.9)29.623.7
 No6073(74.1)72.378.86164(72.1)70.476.3
Marital Status,    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Married5137(60.0)57.865.75359(59.4)56.266.7
 Single1501(20.5)20.719.81671(21.0)22.018.4
 Divorced/Separated1005(11.9)12.99.31097(12.1)12.910.4
 Widowed640(7.6)8.65.2660(7.5)8.94.5
Ethnic group,    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Jews, of which:6853(83.1)84.180.77298(81.5)82.579.2
 Born in Israel4111(50.7)49.553.74532(51.0)50.053.0
 Immigrants before 19901334(15.9)16.414.41259(13.9)15.111.2
 Immigrants between 1990 and 20001048(12.3)13.310.01014(11.5)11.711.0
 Immigrants after 2000360(4.2)4.92.6493(5.2)5.64.1
 Arabs1103(13.0)11.417.21145(14.5)13.117.9
 Others327(3.9)4.52.1349(4.0)4.42.9
Religiosity,    0.1    0.067
 Secular3826(47.2)47.845.74055(46.7)47.145.8
 Traditional2194(27.5)27.028.92370(27.8)28.227.0
 Religious1106(12.8)12.713.01185(13.2)13.013.7
 Very religious/ultra-Orthodox633(6.1)56.8786(7.2)6.68.6
 Mixed lifestyle524(6.3)6.65.6396(5.0)5.14.9
Periphery index,    0.008    0.3
 Peripheral1226(13.1)12.415.01484(15.8)15.516.5
 Non-peripheral7057(86.9)87.685.17308(84.2)84.583.5
Income deciles,    < 0.001    < 0.001
 1–2 (Low)1767(19.2)19.618.31811(20.0)21.017.7
 3–41683(19.8)20.518.01781(20.0)20.618.6
 5–61576(20.2)20.818.91718(20.0)20.219.6
 7–81594(20.4)20.719.61716(20.0)20.119.7
 9–10 (High)1663(20.4)18.525.21766(20.0)18.124.4
Years of education,    < 0.001    < 0.001
 088(1.1)1.11.1113(1.2)1.30.8
 1–8432(4.7)5.52.7399(4.7)5.62.8
 9–122543(32.0)32.331.12597(30.7)32.127.5
 13–151855(22.5)23.719.31854(21.2)21.819.8
 16+3365(39.7)37.445.83829(42.2)39.249.0
SES index#,    < 0.001    < 0.001
 1 (Low)590(6.2)5.19.0654(7.1)6.29.2
 21859(22.6)21.525.21882(21.5)21.321.9
 33339(39.9)42.633.13624(41.7)43.537.6
 42391(30.1)29.830.82505(28.5)27.829.9
 5 (High)104(1.2)1.01.7127(1.2)1.21.4
Ownership of an apartment,    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Yes5717(67.9)65.773.76030(66.5)64.171.9
 No2566(32.1)34.326.32762(33.5)35.928.1
Ownership of a car,    < 0.001    < 0.001
 No2606(30.8)33.723.22489(27.9)31.819.0
 One car3760(44.8)44.246.63990(45.7)45.146.8
 Two cars or more1917(24.4)22.130.32313(26.5)23.134.1
Ownership of supplementary health insurance,    1.0    < 0.001
 Yes6978(84.1)84.284.17394(82.3)80.985.3
 No1305(15.9)15.815.91398(17.7)19.114.7
  1. OOPE out-of-pocket expenditure, SES socioeconomic status
  2. Notes: Dental care includes dental treatments, orthodontics, oral surgery and dental imaging; Percentages are weighted in order to represent the entire Israeli population; Income deciles are based on net income per standard person deciles, including cash income (i.e. from work, property, pensions, interest or dividends and allowances), as well as non-cash income (i.e. from housing and cars owned by the household), after deducting compulsory payments (income tax, national insurance and health insurance tax); Peripherality index incorporates the potential accessibility of the locality as well as its proximity to the boundary of the Tel Aviv District; Supplementary insurance includes supplemental insurance of the health plans, private commercial health insurance, private dental insurance, long-term care insurance and other private health insurance
  3. Defined according to the primary earner
  4. Defined according to the highest between the primary earner and his/her spouse
  5. # Defined according to the locality in which the household resides