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Table 2 Monthly out-of-pocket expenditures on dental care by demographic and socioeconomic household characteristics

From: Factors associated with disparities in out-of-pocket expenditure on dental care: results from two cross-sectional national surveys

CharacteristicsSurvey year
20142018
Monthly dental OOPE in USDPMonthly dental OOPE in USDP
NMedian (Q1;Q3)NMedian (Q1;Q3)
 235868 (21;190) 270164 (21;196) 
Sex,  0.5  0.4
 Male158168 (21;179)172867 (21;198)
 Female77768 (19;216)97360 (21;181)
Any household members aged 0–14,  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Yes114463 (20;171)130456 (19;170)
 No121471 (21;229)139769 (21;213)
Any household members aged 65+,  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Yes53285 (24;256)67785 (26;273)
 No182660 (18;172)202459 (19;170)
Marital Status,  0.6  0.4
 Married159074 (22;192)183466 (21;204)
 Single41753 (17;181)45651 (17;163)
 Divorced/Separated22460 (17;221)28461 (17;179)
 Widowed12748 (17;171)12485 (26;230)
Ethnic group,  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Jews, of which190763 (18;179)219259 (18;175)
 Born in Israel124558 (17;172)145952 (17;170)
 Immigrants before 199035376 (23;214)32986 (23;256)
 Immigrants between 1990 and 200024159 (17;177)29244 (16;150)
 Immigrants after 20006860 (19;218)11281 (23;188)
 Arabs396102 (26;256)43185 (34;256)
 Others5568 (21;102)7872 (28;212)
Religiosity,  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Secular106164 (20;181)121352 (17;172)
 Traditional65585 (25;214)71385 (25;255)
 Religious31651 (17;171)36859 (20;181)
 Very religious/ultra-Orthodox19851 (17;128)29051 (20;156)
 Mixed lifestyle12860 (20;248)11768 (29;183)
Periphery index,  < 0.001  0.003
 Peripheral387120 (34;257)48069 (26;213)
 Non-peripheral197160 (18;172)222160 (19;192)
Income deciles,  0.034  0.15
 1–2 (Low)48655 (17;171)50860 (21;170)
 3–443565 (20;171)51060 (21;170)
 5–642660 (17;224)51769 (19;183)
 7–844277 (21;184)51864 (21;213)
 9–10 (High)56968 (22;229)64867 (21;215)
Years of education,  < 0.001  < 0.001
 02143 (14;254)24112 (25;239)
 1–87793 (30;179)7266 (33;256)
 9–1269685 (22;256)71885 (25;255)
 13–1546567 (21;172)53969 (21;201)
 16+109955 (18;170)134851 (17;166)
SES index#,  0.005  < 0.001
 1 (Low)230103 (30;256)26199 (29;255)
 258360 (19;209)58669 (23;175)
 379677 (20;191)99768 (20;213)
 470554 (19;172)81444 (17;160)
 5 (High)4452 (14;127)4378 (22;306)
Ownership of an apartment,  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Yes175777 (22;222)197969 (21;207)
 No60143 (17;145)72251 (17;172)
Ownership of a car,  0.055  0.3
 No57851 (17;171)54869 (21;180)
 One car109676 (21;217)125264 (21;207)
 Two cars or more68467 (21;178)90159 (21;181)
Ownership of supplementary health insurance,  0.2  0.09
 Yes201071 (21;199)234964 (21;196)
 No34851 (18;171)35268 (25;184)
  1. OOPE out-of-pocket expenditure, Q1 first quartile, Q3 third quartile, SES socioeconomic status
  2. Notes: Dental care includes dental treatments, orthodontics, oral surgery and dental imaging; ‘Monthly dental OOPE in USD’ is analyzed only for households who reported any; Income deciles are based on net income per standard person deciles, including cash income (i.e. from work, property, pensions, interest or dividends and allowances), as well as non-cash income (i.e. from housing and cars owned by the household), after deducting compulsory payments (income tax, national insurance and health insurance tax); Peripherality index incorporates the potential accessibility of the locality as well as its proximity to the boundary of the Tel Aviv District; Supplementary insurance includes supplemental insurance of the health plans, private commercial health insurance, private dental insurance, long-term care insurance and other private health insurance
  3. Defined according to the primary earner
  4. Defined according to the highest of the primary earner and his/her spouse
  5. # Defined according to the locality in which the household resides