Skip to main content

Table 3 Association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with the likelihood for reporting any out-of-pocket expenditure for dental care: multivariate analysis

From: Factors associated with disparities in out-of-pocket expenditure on dental care: results from two cross-sectional national surveys

Independent variableSurvey year
20142018
OR95% CIPOR95% CIP
Sex  0.6  0.022
 Female1.00Ref. cat.1.00Ref. cat.
 Male0.97(0.85–1.11)0.86(0.76–0.98)
Marital status  0.3  0.6
 Single1.00Ref. cat.1.00Ref. cat.
 Married0.86(0.72–1.02)1.05(0.89–1.24)
 Divorced/Separated0.83(0.66–1.05)1.01(0.75–1.34)
 Widowed0.89(0.66–1.19)1.01(0.75–1.34)
Religiosity level  0.5  0.2
 Secular1.00Ref. cat.1.00Ref. cat.
 Traditional1.04(0.90–1.20)0.92(0.80–1.06)
 Religious0.94(0.77–1.14)0.98(0.81–1.17)
 Very religious/ultra-Orthodox1.10(0.85–1.43)1.22(0.96–1.54)
 Mixed lifestyle0.85(0.65–1.10)0.88(0.66–1.17)
Years of education  < 0.001  < 0.001
 0–81.00Ref. cat.1.00Ref. cat.
 9–121.27(0.93–1.72)1.29(0.95–1.77)
 13–151.27(0.92–1.75)1.50(1.09–2.08)
 16+1.72(1.25–2.37)1.81(1.32–2.49)
Income deciles  < 0.001  < 0.001
 1–2 (Low)1.00Ref. cat.1.00Ref. cat.
 3–41.15(0.93–1.42)1.19(0.98–1.45)
 5–61.26(1.00–1.59)1.30(1.05–1.61)
 7–81.28(1.00–1.63)1.25(0.99–1.56)
 9–10 (High)1.76(1.36–2.28)1.74(1.37–2.22)
Peripherality index  0.040  0.7
 Non-peripheral1.00Ref. cat.1.00Ref. cat.
 Peripheral1.19(1.01–1.41)0.97(0.83–1.16)
Ownership of an apartment  0.8  0.9
 No1.00Ref. cat.1.00Ref. cat.
 Yes0.98(0.85–1.14)1.01(0.87–1.16)
Ownership of a car  0.2  0.008
 No1.00Ref. cat.1.00Ref. cat.
 One car1.17(0.99–1.38)1.28(1.08–1.50)
 Two cars or more1.19(0.96–1.47)1.36(1.11–1.67)
EthnicityInteraction results are presented in Table 40.003  < 0.001
 Jewish1.00Ref. cat.
 Arab1.77(1.43–2.18)
 Other0.87(0.64–1.19)
Ownership of supplementary health insurance  0.022
 No1.00Ref. cat.
 Yes1.25(1.03–1.51)
  1. OR odds-ratio, CI confidence interval, Ref. cat. reference category
  2. Notes: Weighted models, adjusted for the age composition of the household; c-Statistic = 0.641 (95%CI: 0.628–0.654) for 2014 survey and 0.646 (95%CI: 0.634–0.658) for 2018 survey; Income deciles are based on net income per standard person deciles, including cash income (i.e. from work, property, pensions, interest or dividends and allowances), as well as non-cash income (i.e. from housing and cars owned by the household), after deducting compulsory payments (income tax, national insurance and health insurance tax); Peripherality index incorporates the potential accessibility of the locality as well as its proximity to the boundary of the Tel Aviv District; Supplementary insurance includes supplemental insurance of the health plans, private commercial health insurance, private dental insurance, long-term care insurance and other private health insurance