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Table 5 Association of demographic and socioeconomic characteristic with the level of out-of-pocket expenditure for dental care: multivariate analysis

From: Factors associated with disparities in out-of-pocket expenditure on dental care: results from two cross-sectional national surveys

Independent variableSurvey year
20142018
OOPE for dental carePOOPE for dental careP
Log coefficient (SE)% change (95% CI)Log coefficient (SE)% change (95% CI)
Sex  0.1  0.7
 Female0Ref. cat0Ref. cat
 Male−0.134 (0.084)−12.50 (−25.80–3.18)−0.029 (0.073)− 2.86 (− 15.86–12.15)
Marital Status  0.2  0.2
 Single0Ref. cat.0Ref. cat
 Married0.235 (0.113)26.45 (1.40–57.67)0.222 (0.102)24.86 (2.16–52.61)
 Divorced/Separated0.162 (0.166)17.54 (−15.17–62.86)0.180 (0.133)19.74 (−7.67–55.29)
 Widowed0.045 (0.204)4.62 (−29.83–55.98)0.215 (0.185)24.05 (−13.64–78.18)
Ethnicity  0.017  < 0.001
 Jewish0Ref. cat.0Ref. cat
 Arab0.418 (0.151)51.93 (12.93–104.39)0.598 (0.121)81.85 (43.49–130.45)
 Other−0.106 (0.192)−10.09 (−38.29–30.99)0.199 (0.177)22.03 (−13.76–72.67)
Religiosity level  0.5  0.064
 Secular0Ref. cat.0Ref. cat
 Traditional0.040 (0.093)4.11 (−13.18–24.83)0.211 (0.085)23.45 (4.47–45.88)
 Religious−0.136 (0.126)−12.75 (−31.90–11.78)0.019 (0.106)1.94 (−17.15–25.43)
 Very religious/Orthodox−0.065 (0.164)−6.30 (−32.06–29.23)0.222 (0.131)24.88 (−3.41–61.45)
 Mixed lifestyle0.169 (0.164)18.40 (−14.08–63.16)0.166 (0.173)18.11 (−15.91–65.88)
Income deciles  0.3  0.004
 1–2 (Low)0Ref. cat.0Ref. cat
 3–40.050 (0.126)5.09 (−17.90–34.51)0.200 (0.112)22.15 (−1.97–52.19)
 5–60.081 (0.149)8.47 (−18.97–45.21)0.298 (0.124)34.72 (5.72–71.68)
 7–80.238 (0.152)26.87 (−5.78–70.83)0.488 (0.133)62.89 (25.62–111.21)
 9–10 (High)0.231 (0.156)26.00 (−7.23–71.14)0.487 (0.143)62.78 (23.10–115.26)
Peripherality index  < 0.001  0.09
 Non-peripheral0Ref. cat.0Ref. cat
 Peripheral0.408 (0.111)50.40 (20.90–87.10)0.150 (0.088)16.13 (−2.36–38.14)
Ownership of an apartment  0.6  0.2
 No0Ref. cat.0Ref. cat
 Yes0.054 (0.098)5.59 (−12.80–27.85)−0.121 (0.088)−11.37 (− 25.37–5.27)
Ownership of a car  0.4  0.2
 No0Ref. cat.0Ref. cat
 One car0.074 (0.106)7.65 (−12.51–32.45)−0.147 (0.099)−13.65 (−28.91–4.88)
 Two cars or more−0.046 (0.129)−4.47 (− 25.84–23.05)− 0.198 (0.121)−17.94 (−35.26–4.01)
Years of education  0.4Interaction results are presented in Table 60.009
 0–80Ref. cat.
 9–120.138 (0.205)14.84 (−23.23–71.81)
 13–15−0.006 (0.231)−0.56 (−36.37–56.47)
 16+−0.024 (0.218)−2.34 (−36.37–49.88)
Ownership of supplementary health insurance  0.043
 No0Ref. cat.
 Yes0.253 (0.125)28.80 (0.76–64.63)
  1. OOPE out-of-pocket expenditure, SE standard error, CI confidence interval, Ref. cat. reference category
  2. Notes: Weighted models, adjusted for the age composition of the household; Adjusted R-square = 0.068 for 2014 and 0.063 for 2018; % change in USD, as calculated by the formula: (eβ-1) × 100; Income deciles are based on net income per standard person deciles, including cash income (i.e. from work, property, pensions, interest or dividends and allowances), as well as non-cash income (i.e. from housing and cars owned by the household), after deducting compulsory payments (income tax, national insurance and health insurance tax); Peripherality index incorporates the potential accessibility of the locality as well as its proximity to the boundary of the Tel Aviv District; Supplementary insurance includes supplemental insurance of the health plans, private commercial health insurance, private dental insurance, long-term care insurance and other private health insurance