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Table 1 Associations between mode of communication and study variables (in percentages)

From: Associations between ethnicity, place of residence, hearing status of family and habilitation of children with hearing impairment

Variable Oral Communication (n = 439) Manual Communication (n = 413) Combined Communication (n = 358) Df χ2
Gender
 Male 34.9 37.1 28.0 2 6.183*
 Female 38.0 30.3 31.6   
Age
 18–24 35.8 30.9 33.3 2 7.816*
 25–30 36.7 36.8 26.5   
Ethnicity
 General 43.9 22.8 33.3 4 262.402**
 Ultra-Orthodox 85.9 2.1 12.0   
 Arab 15.4 56.7 27.8   
District
 Tel Aviv 44.5 21.9 33.6 14 182.794***
 Center 43.3 22.1 34.6   
 Haifa 32.2 29.4 38.5   
 North 27.7 41.4 30.9   
 Jerusalem 47.9 25.5 26.6   
 South 10.6 73.3 16.1   
 Judea/Samaria 69.7 12.1 18.2   
 Ashdod/Ashkelon 48.4 25.0 26.6   
First-degree relatives with HL
 Yes 27.3 40.1 32.6 2 55.309***
 No 46.2 21.4 32.4   
Assistive device
 CI 53.6 14.0 32.4 4 295.155***
 Hearing aid 36.1 29.7 34.2   
 No device 7.8 78.9 13.3   
  1. p < .001*** p < .01** p < .05*