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Table 3 Selected statistics showing inequality in healthcare parameters by ethnicity and geographic location [38, 39]

From: National initiatives to promote quality of care and patient safety: achievements to date and challenges ahead

Indicator First Year Difference in the First Year Last Year Difference in the Last Year
Differences between Jews and Arabs
 Life expectancy at birth, males 1975 3 2018 3.7
 Life expectancy at birth, females 1975 3 2018 2.8
 Infant mortality / 1000 live births 1975 −23 2017 −2.5
 Age-adjusted cancer / 100,000, males 1974 110 2015 45
 Age-adjusted cancer / 100,000, females 1974 170 2015 100
 First visit to maternity care 2016 10% 2018 14%
 Exclusive breastfeeding at birth 2016 17% 2018 16%
 Complementary insurance ownership 1997 32% 2017 45%
 Private insurance ownership 1997 15% 2017 35%
 Influenza vaccine 2010 8% 2017 2%
 Mammography screening 2010 15% 2017 16%
Differences between center and periphery
 Infant mortality / 1000 live births 2008 −1.9 2017 −1.7
 Prophylactic antibiotics, hip fracture surgery 2014 26% 2018 13%
 Evaluation for violence in psychiatric ED 2014 −12% 2018 5%
 General hospital beds / 1000 2008 0.75 2018 0.69
 Internal medicine beds / 1000 > 45y 2008 0.65 2018 0.53
 ICU beds / 1000 2008 0.04 2018 0.02
 Pediatric beds / 1000 0-14y 2008 0.38 2018 0.41
 Surgical beds / 1000 2008 0.45 2018 0.32
 Obstetric beds / 1000 2008 0.17 2018 0.01
 ED positions / 1000 2008 0.08 2018 0.03
 Surgical suits / 1000 2008 0.04 2018 0.03
 Post-operative care beds / 1000 2008 0.08 2018 0.04
 Israel graduates among physicians 2008 13% 2020 15%
 Physicians / 1000 2011 1.4 2016 2.0
 Nurses / 1000 2011 1.6 2016 1.9
 Allied health professionals / 1000 2011 1.5 2016 1.4
  1. Bold print represents substantial improvement in comparison with previous time point (see Methods section)
  2. ED emergency department