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Table 1 The baseline characteristics of the study population by study year

From: Temporal trends in healthcare resource utilization and costs following acute myocardial infarction

Year2003200420052006200720082009201020112012201320142015p for trend
n426123318222491311136954211466450675482565052232115
Demographics
 Age at AMI, years; Mean (SD)64.20 (12.97)64.09 (12.96)63.76 (12.88)63.40 (12.84)63.06 (12.72)63.02 (12.88)62.68 (12.94)62.44 (12.93)62.23 (12.95)62.09 (13.00)61.99 (13.01)61.78 (12.97)60.79 (12.74)< 0.001
 Sex, Male293 (68.8)850 (68.9)1278 (70.1)1761 (70.7)2235 (71.8)2662 (72.0)3068 (72.9)3404 (73.0)3717 (73.4)4013 (73.2)4165 (73.7)3886 (74.4)1579 (74.7)< 0.001
 Muslims85 (20.0)246 (20.0)371 (20.4)508 (20.4)642 (20.6)774 (20.9)910 (21.6)1056 (22.6)1180 (23.3)1306 (23.8)1367 (24.2)1310 (25.1)515 (24.3)< 0.001
Cardiac diseases
 Supraventricular arrhythmias46 (10.8)159 (12.9)221 (12.1)306 (12.3)373 (12.0)456 (12.3)497 (11.8)540 (11.6)570 (11.2)616 (11.2)645 (11.4)577 (11.0)223 (10.5)0.003
 CHF80 (18.8)186 (15.1)261 (14.3)341 (13.7)390 (12.5)450 (12.2)499 (11.8)525 (11.3)533 (10.5)554 (10.1)555 (9.8)486 (9.3)172 (8.1)< 0.001
 Pulmonary heart disease13
(3.1)
56
(4.5)
88
(4.8)
140 (5.6)162 (5.2)214 (5.8)241 (5.7)282 (6.0)307 (6.1)314 (5.7)349 (6.2)308 (5.9)109 (5.2)0.012
 CIHD305 (71.6)932 (75.6)1407 (77.2)1928 (77.4)2458 (79.0)2951 (79.9)3426 (81.4)3860 (82.8)4205 (83.0)4565 (83.3)4761 (84.3)4447 (85.1)1820 (86.1)< 0.001
 AV block14 (3.3)42 (3.4)68 (3.7)92 (3.7)111 (3.6)118 (3.2)129 (3.1)148 (3.2)159 (3.1)177 (3.2)183 (3.2)161 (3.1)63 (3.0)0.092
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Renal diseases206 (48.4)479 (38.8)640 (35.1)844 (33.9)1001 (32.2)1125 (30.4)1244 (29.5)1335 (28.6)1416 (27.9)1499 (27.3)1447 (25.6)1296 (24.8)504 (23.8)< 0.001
 Diabetes Mellitus157 (36.9)409 (33.2)598 (32.8)801 (32.2)1028 (33.0)1250 (33.8)1416 (33.6)1536 (32.9)1678 (33.1)1802 (32.9)1908 (33.8)1770 (33.9)681 (32.2)0.825
 Dyslipidemia291 (68.3)815 (66.1)1236 (67.8)1671 (67.1)2140 (68.8)2555 (69.1)2969 (70.5)3331 (71.4)3680 (72.6)4006 (73.1)4170 (73.8)3871 (74.1)1563 (73.9)< 0.001
 Hypertension200 (46.9)648 (52.6)929 (51.0)1252 (50.3)1556 (50.0)1872 (50.7)2114 (50.2)2368 (50.8)2575 (50.8)2796 (51.0)2921 (51.7)2670 (51.1)1074 (50.8)0.253
 Obesity87 (20.4)255 (20.7)369 (20.3)535 (21.5)683 (22.0)849 (23.0)1001 (23.8)1145 (24.5)1254 (24.7)1368 (25.0)1414 (25.0)1302 (24.9)553 (26.1)< 0.001
 Smoking168 (39.4)487 (39.5)770 (42.3)1064 (42.7)1359 (43.7)1617 (43.8)1896 (45.0)2110 (45.2)2313 (45.6)2524 (46.0)2616 (46.3)2451 (46.9)1030 (48.7)< 0.001
 PVD58 (13.6)165 (13.4)245 (13.4)305 (12.2)365 (11.7)411 (11.1)444 (10.5)471 (10.1)492 (9.7)501 (9.1)472 (8.4)416 (8.0)164 (7.8)< 0.001
 Family history of IHD18
(4.2)
60
(4.9)
109 (6.0)169 (6.8)225 (7.2)292 (7.9)351 (8.3)419 (9.0)469 (9.3)512 (9.3)543 (9.6)531 (10.2)237 (11.2)< 0.001
Other disorders
 COPD20
(4.7)
79
(6.4)
121 (6.6)155 (6.2)182 (5.9)206 (5.6)220 (5.2)239 (5.1)247 (4.9)261 (4.8)273 (4.8)235 (4.5)87 (4.1)< 0.001
 Neurological disorders47 (11.0)139 (11.3)207 (11.4)277 (11.1)321 (10.3)399 (10.8)465 (11.0)508 (10.9)570 (11.2)623 (11.4)640 (11.3)563 (10.8)210 (9.9)0.841
 Anemia199 (46.7)576 (46.7)836 (45.9)1140 (45.8)1414 (45.5)1737 (47.0)1975 (46.9)2215 (47.5)2409 (47.5)2578 (47.0)2670 (47.3)2440 (46.7)944 (44.6)0.530
 GI bleeding6 (1.4)20 (1.6)35 (1.9)48 (1.9)60 (1.9)61 (1.7)73 (1.7)78 (1.7)84 (1.7)94 (1.7)97 (1.7)84 (1.6)35 (1.7)0.391
 Schizophrenia/Psychosis5 (1.2)18 (1.5)22 (1.2)40 (1.6)50 (1.6)59 (1.6)59 (1.4)62 (1.3)63 (1.2)62 (1.1)65 (1.2)54 (1.0)17 (0.8)0.001
 Alcohol/drug addiction9
(2.1)
20
(1.6)
30
(1.6)
48
(1.9)
67
(2.2)
76
(2.1)
79
(1.9)
90
(1.9)
96
(1.9)
106 (1.9)105 (1.9)97
(1.9)
37
(1.7)
0.743
 Malignancy8
(1.9)
34
(2.8)
45
(2.5)
56
(2.2)
69
(2.2)
87
(2.4)
97
(2.3)
98
(2.1)
106 (2.1)119 (2.2)128 (2.3)121 (2.3)43
(2.0)
0.430
Administrative characteristics of the hospitalization
 Admitted/transposed to ICCU288 (67.6)869 (70.5)1339 (73.5)1848 (74.2)2352 (75.6)2797 (75.7)3233 (76.8)3635 (77.9)3963 (78.2)4264 (77.8)4401 (77.9)4101 (78.5)1707 (80.7)< 0.001
 Length of hospital stay (days), > 7232 (54.5)666 (54.0)986 (54.1)1375 (55.2)1668 (53.6)1924 (52.1)2127 (50.5)2308 (49.5)2439 (48.1)2594 (47.3)2599 (46.0)2339 (44.8)909 (43.0)< 0.001
 Type of AMI, STEMI323 (75.8)816 (66.2)1188 (65.2)1531 (61.5)1826 (58.7)2087 (56.5)2331 (55.4)2545 (54.6)2750 (54.3)2961 (54.0)2966 (52.5)2722 (52.1)1130 (53.4)< 0.001
Results of echocardiography
Echocardiography performance328 (77.0)974 (79.0)1482 (81.3)2054 (82.5)2620 (84.2)3117 (84.4)3606 (85.6)4043 (86.7)4421 (87.3)4784 (87.3)4945 (87.5)4624 (88.5)1904 (90.0)< 0.001
 Severe LV dysfunction31
(9.5)
91
(9.3)
135 (9.1)176 (8.6)210 (8.0)234 (7.5)244 (6.8)264 (6.5)291 (6.6)332 (6.9)358 (7.2)346 (7.5)117 (6.1)< 0.001
 LV hypertrophy24
(7.3)
52
(5.3)
67
(4.5)
84
(4.1)
102 (3.9)125 (4.0)143 (4.0)150 (3.7)143 (3.2)163 (3.4)162 (3.3)146 (3.2)65
(3.4)
< 0.001
 Mitral regurgitation13
(4.0)
37
(3.8)
61
(4.1)
82
(4.0)
100 (3.8)113 (3.6)144 (4.0)169 (4.2)200 (4.5)222 (4.6)211 (4.3)176 (3.8)61
(3.2)
0.717
 Tricuspidal regurgitation8
(2.4)
19
(2.0)
31
(2.1)
44
(2.1)
53
(2.0)
73
(2.3)
80
(2.2)
90
(2.2)
100 (2.3)115 (2.4)118 (2.4)100 (2.2)39
(2.0)
0.571
Pulmonary hypertension13
(4.0)
37
(3.8)
59
(4.0)
91
(4.4)
119 (4.5)159 (5.1)182 (5.0)211 (5.2)225 (5.1)234 (4.9)247 (5.0)211 (4.6)78
(4.1)
0.418
Results of angiography
Angiography performance238 (55.9)795 (64.5)1260 (69.2)1731 (69.5)2250 (72.3)2749 (74.4)3225 (76.6)3666 (78.6)4039 (79.7)4418 (80.6)4646 (82.2)4362 (83.5)1774 (83.9)< 0.001
 Measure of CAD, No or non-significant7
(2.9)
42
(5.3)
62
(4.9)
85
(4.9)
105 (4.7)125 (4.5)150 (4.7)173 (4.7)196 (4.9)215 (4.9)240 (5.2)216 (5.0)75
(4.2)
< 0.001
 One vessel50 (21.0)177 (22.3)279 (22.1)412 (23.8)554 (24.6)705 (25.6)832 (25.8)958 (26.1)1083 (26.8)1205 (27.3)1277 (27.5)1236 (28.3)534 (30.1)< 0.001
< 0.001
 Two vessels71 (29.8)221 (27.8)358 (28.4)496 (28.7)653 (29.0)788 (28.7)902 (28.0)1041 (28.4)1143 (28.3)1255 (28.4)1325 (28.5)1262 (28.9)506 (28.5)
 Three vessels/ LM110 (46.2)355 (44.7)561 (44.5)738 (42.6)938 (41.7)1130 (41.1)1340 (41.6)1494 (40.8)1617 (40.0)1743 (39.5)1804 (38.8)1648 (37.8)659 (37.1)
 Type of treatment, Noninvasive179 (42.0)418 (33.9)533 (29.3)687 (27.6)770 (24.8)841 (22.8)868 (20.6)862 (18.5)879 (17.3)899 (16.4)833 (14.7)691 (13.2)258 (12.2)
 PCI203 (47.7)673 (54.6)1070 (58.7)1506 (60.5)1960 (63.0)2360 (63.9)2725 (64.7)3079 (66.0)3391 (66.9)3707 (67.6)3908 (69.2)3669 (70.2)1512 (71.5)< 0.001
 CABG44 (10.3)142 (11.5)219 (12.0)298 (12.0)381 (12.2)494 (13.4)618 (14.7)723 (15.5)797 (15.7)875 (16.0)908 (16.1)862 (16.5)345 (16.3)
Healthcare utilization an year before AMI; Mean (SD)
 Hospitalizations LOS, days4.28 (7.74)4.61 (9.79)4.47 (10.45)4.38 (9.81)4.1 (8.49)4.04 (8.47)3.73 (7.79)3.59 (7.49)3.49 (8.34)3.27 (8.02)3.03 (7.90)2.8 (7.76)2.82 (8.27)< 0.001
 Number of ED visits0.02 (0.17)0.03 (0.20)0.03 (0.20)0.03 (0.19)0.02 (0.19)0.02 (0.17)0.02 (0.17)0.03 (0.20)0.06 (0.32)0.11 (0.52)0.13 (0.49)0.16 (0.55)0.12 (0.47)< 0.001
 Number of primary clinic visits3.01 (5.50)6.97 (8.45)8.20 (9.04)9.11 (9.45)9.65 (9.85)10.03 (10.06)10.23 (10.12)10.37 (10.14)10.48 (10.2)10.50 (10.16)10.72 (9.97)10.76 (9.91)10.41 (9.90)< 0.001
 Number of ambulatory clinic visits5.18 (8.52)5.15 (10.64)3.83 (8.60)4.79 (10.86)5.39 (12.00)5.92 (12.39)6.12 (12.00)6.59 (14.07)6.86 (14.96)6.83 (14.51)6.64 (13.27)6.70 (13.08)6.61 (12.45)< 0.001
 Number of consulting clinic visits0.53 (1.25)0.78 (1.68)0.82 (1.70)0.93 (1.85)0.94 (1.83)0.97 (1.81)0.98 (1.83)1.02 (1.92)1.03 (1.92)1.04 (1.95)1.06 (1.96)1.06 (1.93)1.05 (2.02)< 0.001
 Total cost, USD2391 (4029)2962 (5066)2909 (4878)3055 (5516)3090 (5457)3136 (5458)3043 (4819)3109
(5231)
3208 (6453)3124 (6182)3006 (5675)2922 (5585)2966 (6618)0.996
Follow-up
 Full adherence to medical treatment during the 1st year64 (15.0)218 (17.7)362 (19.9)553 (22.2)724 (23.3)888 (24.0)1065 (25.3)1204 (25.8)1293 (25.5)1354 (24.7)1378 (24.4)1275 (24.4)529 (25.0)< 0.001
 Age in the present year, years; Mean (SD)64.20 (12.97)64.74 (12.95)65.00 (12.88)65.11 (12.84)65.23 (12.71)65.64 (12.82)65.77 (12.88)66.00 (12.85)66.27 (12.84)66.55 (12.83)66.65 (12.83)66.69 (12.86)67.40 (12.64)< 0.001
 Period since AMI, years; Mean (SD)1.00
(0)
1.33 (0.47)1.85 (0.74)2.28 (1.05)2.71 (1.34)3.16 (1.62)3.61 (1.90)4.08 (2.17)4.56 (2.44)4.97 (2.74)5.14 (2.87)5.37 (2.75)6.68 (2.53)< 0.001
  1. The data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise stated. Dyslipidemia is defined as recorded diagnosis of dyslipidemia and/or average LDL level > 130 mg/dL during the hospitalization. Anemia is defined as recorded diagnosis of anemia and/or hemoglobin level < 14 g/dL or hematocrit level < 42% for males and hemoglobin level < 12 g/dL or hematocrit level < 37% for females during a hospitalization
  2. Abbreviations: AMI Acute myocardial infarction; AV Atrioventricular; CABG Coronary artery bypass surgery; CAD Coronary artery disease; CHF Congestive heart failure; CIHD Chronic ischemic heart disease; COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ED emergency department; GI Gastro-intestinal; ICCU Intensive Cardiac Care Unit; IHD Ischemic heart disease; LOS length of (hospital) stay; LM Left main (artery); LV Left ventricular; PCI Percutaneous coronary intervention; PVD Peripheral vascular disease; SD standard deviation; STEMI ST segment elevation myocardial infarction; USD United States Dollars