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Table 2 Trends of healthcare resources utilization and costs – multivariate analysis

From: Temporal trends in healthcare resource utilization and costs following acute myocardial infarction

Dependent variableModel LevelaB (SE)c95% CI (B)p
Length of hospital stay (days per patient-year)1− 0.075 (0.008)(−0.091; − 0.060)< 0.001
2− 0.155 (0.009)(− 0.172; − 0.137)< 0.001
3−0.142 (0.030)(− 0.201; − 0.083)< 0.001
ED visits (number of visits per patient-year)b10.276 (0.009)(0.259; 0.293)< 0.001
20.277 (0.021)(0.236; 0.318)< 0.001
30.289 (0.014)(0.262; 0.317)< 0.001
Primary clinic visits (number of visits per patient-year)1−0.358 (0.026)(−0.409; − 0.307)< 0.001
2− 0.696 (0.026)(− 0.746; − 0.645)< 0.001
3−0.612 (0.025)(− 0.661; − 0.563)< 0.001
Ambulatory visits (number of visits per patient-year)10.009 (0.004)(0.001; 0.018)0.033
2−0.012 (0.005)(−0.021; − 0.003)0.008
30.008 (0.005)(−0.001; 0.016)0.091
Consultant visits (number of visits per patient-year)10.015 (0.003)(0.008; 0.021)< 0.001
2−0.026 (0.004)(−0.034; − 0.019)< 0.001
3− 0.025 (0.004)(− 0.033; − 0.017)< 0.001
Total cost (USD per patient-year)1−0.015 (0.005)(− 0.025; − 0.006)0.001
2− 0.050 (0.006)(− 0.061; − 0.040)< 0.001
3−0.005 (0.011)(− 0.027; 0.016)0.627
  1. a The first level models – unadjusted. The second level models - adjusted for the time following the Acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The third level models - adjusted for the time following the AMI, age (at the evaluated year), sex, nationality, utilization / cost during an year before AMI, adherence to medical treatment during the 1st year, type of AMI, type of treatment and comorbidities (renal diseases, diabetes mellitus, neurological disorders, anemia, supraventricular arrhythmias, Congestive heart failure, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and Alcohol/drug addiction
  2. b Emergency department (ED) visits with no hospital admission
  3. c Beta coefficient represents the degree of change in the outcome variable for every 1-unit of change in the predictor variable i.e. for every increase of 1 year throughout the follow-up period (e.g. 2003–2004 or 2014–2015) the LOS / cost differed by B units (day / USD), on average
  4. Abbreviations: B regression coefficient; CI confidence interval; SE standard error; USD United States Dollars