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Table 1 Rates of high psychological distress among Palestinian citizens of Israel by socio-demographic and health-related factors

From: Correlates of psychological distress and self-rated health among Palestinian citizens of Israel: findings from the health and environment survey (HESPI)

Socio-demographic and health-related variables Distribution of population’s characteristics by gender (%) Rates of high psychological distress
(mean global GHQ-12 score = ≥17),
by gender
Male Female Total Male Female Total P value for gender differences within each sub-category
N (%)
971 (48.1)
N (%)
1047 (51.9)
N %
2018 (100)
N (%)
277 (28.5)
N (%)
430 (41.1)
N (%)
707 (35.0)
  χ2 = 34.8; df = 1; p = < 0.001
Age
 18–24 137 (14.1) 167 (16.0) 304 (15.1) 34 (24.8) 50 (29.9) 84 (27.6) .320
 25–34 237 (24.4) 285 (27.2) 522 (25.9) 64 (27.0) 90 (31.6) 154 (29.5) .254
 35–44 249 (25.6) 228 (21.8) 477 (23.6) 55 (22.1) 82 (36.0) 137 (28.7) .001
 45–64 250 (25.7) 249 (23.8) 499 (24.7) 73 (29.2) 119 (47.8) 192 (38.5) .000
 65≥ 98 (10.1) 118 (11.3) 216 (10.7) 51 (52.0) 89 (75.4) 140 (64.8) .000
  χ2 = 7.301; df = 4; p = .121 χ2 = 109; df = 4; p = < 0.001  
Educational level
 No education 86 (8.9) 134 (12.9) 220 (10.9) 45 (52.3) 97 (72.4) 142 (64.5) .002
 Primary school 272 (28.3) 270 (26.1) 542 (26.9) 95 (34.9) 142 (52.6) 237 (43.7) .000
 Partial high-school 272 (28.3) 46 (23.8) 518 (25.7) 75 (27.6) 84 (34.1) 159 (30.7) .105
 High-school dipa 211 (22.0) 256 (24.7) 467 (23.1) 35 (16.6) 69 (27.0) 104 (22.2) .007
 Academic 120 (12.5) 129 (12.5) 249 (12.3) 26 (21.7) 33 (25.6) 59 (23.7) .468
 Missing 10 12 22 (1.1)     
  χ2 = 13.722; df = 4 P = .008 χ2 = 153.8; df = 4; p = < 0.001  
Poverty line
 Above 440 (52.1) 432 (48.6) 872 (43.2) 116 (26.4) 146 (33.8) 262 (30.0) .017
 Below 404 (47.9) 457 (51.4) 861 (42.7) 131 (32.4) 208 (45.5) 339 (39.4) .000
 Missing 127 158 285 (14.1)     
  χ2 = 2.169; df = 1; p = .141 χ2 = 16.6; df = 1; p = < 0.001  
District
 Northern District 515 (53.0) 545 (52.1) 1060 (52.5) 117 (22.7) 192 (36.1) 309 (29.5) .001
 Haifa District 190 (19.6) 214 (20.4) 404 (20.0) 47 (24.7) 88 (41.7) 135 (33.7) .001
 Central District 142 (14.6) 147 (14.0) 289 (14.3) 55 (38.7) 77 (52.7) 132 (45.8) .017
 Southern District 124 (12.8) 141 (13.5) 265 (13.1) 58 (46.8) 73 (52.5) 131 (49.8) .248
  χ2 = .596 df = 3 p = .899 χ2 = 37.364; df = 3; p = < 0.001  
BMI
 Low/healthy 299 (31.4) 463 (46.5) 762 (37.8) 86 (28.8) 159 (34.3) 245 (32.2) .107
 Overweight 496 (52.2) 348 (35.0) 844 (41.8) 134 (27.0) 143 (41.1) 277 (32.8) .000
 Obese 156 (16.4) 184 (18.5) 340 (16.8) 51 (32.7) 108 (58.7) 159 (46.8) .000
 Missing 20 52 72 (3.6)     
  χ2 = 62.592 df = 4; p = < 0.001 χ2 = 25.3; df = 2; p = < 0.001  
Chronic disease
 None 685 (71.1) 714 (68.7) 1399 (69.3) 158 (23.1) 221 (31.0) 379 (27.1) .001
 One 134 (13.9) 125 (12.0) 259 (12.8) 48 (35.8) 70 (56.0) 118 (45.6) .001
 Two or more 144 (15.0) 200 (19.2) 344 (17.0) 66 (45.8) 135 (67.5) 201 (58.4) .000
 Missing 8 8 16 (0.8)     
  χ2 = 7.155; df = 2 p = .028 χ2 = 134.4; df = 2;p = < 0.001  
  1. aHigh school diploma