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Table 2 Health characteristics of the study participants by whether they fell in the past 12 months

From: Falls and fear of falling among Israeli community-dwelling older people: a cross-sectional national survey

   Fallsa in the past 12 months  
Variableb All
n (%)
Yes
n (% within fallers)
No
n (% within non-fallers)
P value
Difficulties in bathing or dressing     0.001>
 No difficulty 2305 (73.4%) 389 (52.3%) 1916 (80.0%)  
 Little difficulty 439 (14.0%) 143 (19.2%) 296 (12.4%)  
 Major difficulty/Disabled 396 (12.6%) 212 (28.5%) 184 (7.7%)  
Difficulties in doing household activities     0.001>
 No difficulty 1811 (58.2%) 260 (35.4%) 1551 (65.3%)  
 Little difficulty 556 (17.9%) 144 (19.6%) 412 (17.3%)  
 Major difficulty/Disabled 744 (23.9%) 331 (45.0%) 413 (17.4%)  
Memory and concentration difficulties     0.001>
 No difficulty 1916 (61.9%) 354 (48.8%) 1562 (65.9%)  
 Little difficulty 978 (31.6%) 274 (37.8%) 704 (29.7%)  
 Major difficulty/Disabled 203 (6.6%) 97 (13.4%) 106 (4.5%)  
Difficulties in walking     0.001>
 No difficulty 1495 (47.8%) 206 (27.6%) 1289 (54.1%)  
 Little difficulty 848 (27.1%) 195 (6.2%) 653 (27.4%)  
 Major difficulty/Disabled 721 (23.0%) 306 (41.0%) 415 (17.4%)  
 No mobility 66 (2.1%) 39 (5.2%) 27 (1.1%)  
Impaired vision, yes, n (%) 862 (27.5%) 276 (37.1%) 586 (24.5%) 0.001>
Hearing problems, yes, n (%) 969 (32.5%) 303 (42.5%) 666 (29.4%) 0.001>
Use of walking aids, yes, n (%) 592 (19.2%) 263 (36.9%) 329 (13.9%) 0.001>
Physical activity     0.001>
 Yes, n (%) 1539 (48.9%) 297 (39.7%) 1242 (51.8%)  
 No, n (%) 1608 (51.1%) 451 (60.3%) 1157 (48.2%)  
Morbidity
 History of heart attack, yes, n (%) 443 (14.1%) 122 (16.4%) 321 (13.4%) 0.046
 Cardiac (arrhythmia/chronic heart failure), yes, n (%) 630 (21.1%) 227 (32.9%) 403 (17.6%) 0.001>
 History of stroke, yes, n (%) 266 (8.5%) 96 (13.0%) 170 (7.2%) 0.001>
 Diabetes mellitus, yes, n (%) 1058 (33.8%) 315 (42.1%) 743 (31.2%) 0.001>
 Parkinson, yes, n (%) 30 (1.0%) 16 (2.2%) 14 (0.6%) 0.001
 Arthritis, yes, n (%) 572 (18.7%) 203 (28.4%) 369 (15.7%) 0.001>
 Depression/Anxiety, yes, n (%) 485 (15.6%) 204 (27.9%) 281 (11.8%) 0.001>
Use of medications (number)     0.001>
 0 346 (11.0%) 47 (6.3%) 299 (12.4%)  
 1–4 1776 (56.3%) 339 (45.1%) 1437 (59.8%)  
 5–8 729 (23.1%) 233 (31.0%) 496 (20.6%)  
 > 8 306 (9.7%) 133 (17.7%) 173 (7.2%)  
Type of medications
 Sleeping medications, yes, n (%) 578 (18.4%) 200 (26.9%) 378 (15.8%) 0.001>
 Mood medications, yes, n (%) 351 (11.3%) 148 (20.1%) 203 (8.5%) 0.001>
Body mass index (BMI kg/m2)     0.43
 BMI-Underweight (< 18.5) 33 (1.2%) 6 (0.9%) 27 (1.3%)  
 BMI-Normal weight (18.5–24.9) 883 (31.4%) 197 (30.2%) 686 (31.8%)  
 BMI-Overweight (25.0–29.9) 1234 (43.9%) 282 (43.2%) 952 (44.1%)  
 BMI-Obese (≥30) 661 (23.5%) 168 (25.7%) 493 (22.8%)  
Having fear of falling, yes, n (%) 1416 (48.2%) 507 (69.8%) 909 (41.4%) 0.001>
Interruption of activities due to fear of falling, yes, n (%) 761 (56.0%) 313 (65.2%) 448 (51.0%) 0.001>
  1. aAt least one fall in the past 12 months
  2. bVariables were weighted by population group, age and gender